Department Faculty

Pratigya Polissar
  • Title
    • Associate Professor
  • Division Physical & Biological Sciences Division
  • Department
    • Ocean Sciences Department
  • Affiliations Earth & Planetary Sciences Department
  • Phone
  • Email
  • Website
  • Office Location
    • Earth & Marine Sciences, A441
  • Mail Stop Ocean Sciences
  • Mailing Address
    • 1156 High Street
    • Santa Cruz CA 95064
  • Faculty Areas of Expertise Geochemistry, Climate Change, Ocean Studies, Earth Sciences
  • Courses OCEA280: Geological Oceanography, EART102: Marine Geology, OCEA80B: Our Changing Planet
  • Advisees, Grad Students, Researchers JB Novak

Summary of Expertise

paleoceanography, paleoclimatology, organic geochemistry, isotope geochemistry, biogeochemistry, climate change

Biography, Education and Training

Associate Professor, Ocean Sciences,  University of California, Santa Cruz

Associate Research Professor, Biology and Paleo Environments, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

Assistant Research Professor, Biology and Paleo Environments, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

Postdoctoral Scholar, Dept. of Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz

Postdoctoral Scholar, Dept. of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University

Ph.D. Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

M.S. Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

B.A. Environmental Science, Hampshire College

Selected Publications



[JA66]   Phelps, S.R.,;Polissar, P.J.; Hennon, W.M.; Dhyrman, S.T.; Hernández-Limón, M.D.; Williamson, O.M. (2021) Carbon isotope fractionation in Noelaerhabdaceae algae and a critical evaluation of the alkenone paleobarometer.  Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. doi: 10.1029/2021GC009657

[JA65]   Polissar, P.J., Uno, K.T., Phelps, S., Karp, A.T., Freeman, K.H., Pensky, J. (2021) Hydrologic Changes Drove the Late Miocene Expansion of C4 Grasslands on the Northern Indian Subcontinent. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. doi: 10.1029/2020PA004108

[JA64]   Karp, A.T., Uno, K.T., Polissar, P.J., Freeman, K.H. (2021) Late Miocene C4 grassland fire feedbacks on the Indian Subcontinent.  Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology.  doi: 10.1029/2020PA004106

[JA63]   Karp, A.T., Andrae, J.W., McInerney, F.A., Polissar, P.J., Freeman, K.H. (2021) Soil carbon loss and weak fire feedbacks during Pliocene C4 grassland expansion in Australia.  Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2020GL090964, doi:10.1029/2020GL090964

[JA62]   Rustic, G.T., Polissar, P.J., Ravelo, A.C., deMenocal, P. (2021) Relationship between individual chamber and whole shell Mg/Ca ratios in Trilobatus sacculifer and implications for individual foraminifera palaeoceanographic reconstructions.  Scientific Reports, 11:463, doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-80673-8.

[JA61]   Rustic, G.T.; Polissar, P.J.; Ravelo, A.C.; White, S.M. (2020) Modulation of late Pleistocene ENSO strength by the tropical Pacific thermocline.  Nature Communications, 11:5377, doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19161-6.

[JA60]   Polissar, P. J., Rose, C., Uno, K. T., Phelps, S. R., & deMenocal, P. (2020). Reply to: Multiple drivers of Miocene C4 ecosystem expansions. Nature Geoscience, 13(7), 465-467, doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0591-4

[JA59]   Rabinowitz, H.S., Savage, H.M., Polissar, P.J., Rowe, C.D., Kirkpatrick, J.D. (2020) Earthquake slip surfaces identified by biomarker thermal maturity within the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake fault zone.  Nature Communications, 11(1), doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-14447-1.

[JA58]   Currano, E.D., Jacobs, B.F., Bush, R.T., Novello, A., McInerney, F.A., Tabor, N.J., Strömberg, C.A.E., Phelps, S., Polissar, P.J. (2020), Ecological dynamic equilibrium in an early Miocene (21.7 Ma) forest, Ethiopia. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 539:109425, doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.109425.

[JA57]   Gibson, D.K., Bird, B.W., Wattrus, N.J., Escobar, J., Ahmed, M., Fonseca, H., Velasco, F., Fernandex, A., Polissar, P.J. (2019) Characterizing late Quaternary lake-level variability in Lago de Tota, Colombian Andes, with CHIRP seismic stratigraphy.  Journal of Paleolimnology, doi: 10.1007/s10933-019-00089-x.

[JA56]   Goldsmith, Y., Polissar, P. J., deMenocal, P. B., & Broecker, W. S. (2019). Leaf wax dD and d13C in soils record hydrological and environmental information across a climatic gradient in Israel. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 124, doi: 10.1029/2019JG005149.

[JA55]   Guitián, J., Phelps, S., Polissar, P.J., Ausín, B., Eglinton, T. I., & Stoll, H. M. (2019). Midlatitude temperature variations in the Oligocene to Early Miocene. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34, doi: 10.1029/2019PA003638

[JA54]   Polissar, P.J. Rose, C. R., Uno, K.T., Phelps, S., deMenocal, P.B. (2019) Synchronous rise of African C4ecosystems 10 million years ago in the absence of aridification.  Nature Geoscience, 12:657-660. doi: 10.1038/s41561-019-0399-2.

[JA53]   Savage, H.M., Polissar, P.J. (2019) Biomarker Thermal Maturity Reveals Localized Temperature Rise along the Punchbowl Fault, CA, USA.  Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.  doi: 10.1029/2019GC008225.

[JA52]   Shelach-Lavi, G., Ten, M., Goldsmith, Y., Wachtel, I., Stevens, C.J., Marder, O., Wan, X., Wu, X., Tu, W., Shavit, R., Polissar, P.J., Xu, Hai, Fuller, D.Q. (2019) Sedentism and plant cultivation in northeast China emerged during affluent conditions, PLoS ONE 14 (7): e0218751, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218751

[JA51]   Lukens, W.E., Fox, D.L., Snell, K.E., Wiest, L.A., Layzell, A.L., Uno, K.T., Polissar, P.J., Martin, R.A., Fox-Dobbs, K., and Peláez-Campomanes, P. (2019) Pliocene environments in the Meade Basin, southwest Kansas, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 89(5):416-439, doi: 10.2110/jsr.2019.24.

 [JA50]  Stoll, H.M., Guitian, J., Hernandez, I., Mejia, L.M., Phelps, S., Polissar, P.J., Rosenthal, Y., Zhang, H., Ziveri, P. (2019) Upregulation of phytoplankton carbon concentrating mechanisms during low CO2 glacial periods and implications for the phytoplankton pCO2 proxy. Quaternary Science Reviews, 208:1-20.  doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.01.012.

 [JA49]  Coffey, G.L., Savage, H.M., Polissar, P.J. (2019) Hot on the trail: Coseismic heating on a localized structure along the Muddy Mountain fault, Nevada.  Journal of Structural Geology, 120:67-79. doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2018.12.012.

[JA48]   Skonieczny, C., McGee, D., Winckler, G., Bory, A., Bradtmiller, L.I., Kinsley, C.W., Polissar, P.J., De Pol-Holz, R., Rossignol, L., Malaizé, B. (2019) Monsoon-driven Saharan dust variability over the last 240,000 years. Science Advances, 5(1):eeav1887, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1887.

 [JA47]  Savage, H.M., Rabinowitz, H.S., Spagnuolo, E., Aretusini, S., Polissar, P.J., Di Toro, G. (2018) Biomarker thermal maturity experiments at earthquake slip rates.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 502:253-261.  doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.08.038.

 [JA46] Andrae, J.W., McInerney, F.A., Polissar, P.J., Sniderman, J.M.K., Howard, S., Hall, P.A., Phelps. S.R. (2018) Initial expansion of C4 vegetation in Australia during the Late Pliocene.  Geophysical Research Letters 45(10): 4831-4840. doi: 10.1029/2018GL077833

 [JA45]  Baczynski, A.A., Polissar, P.J., Juchelka, D., Schwieters, J., Hilkert, A., Summons, R.E., Freeman, K.H. (2018) Pico-CSIA: Picomolar Scale Compound-Specific Isotope Analyses. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry.  doi: 10.1002/rcm.8084.

[JA44]   White, S., Ravelo, A.C., Polissar, P.J. (2018) Dampened El Niño in the early and mid-Holocene due to insolation-forced warming/deepening of the thermocline.  Geophysical Research Letters, 45(1):316-326.  doi: 10.1002/2017GL075433.

[JA43]   Ingalls, M., Rowley, D., Olack, G, Currie, B., Li, Shanying, Schmidt, J., Tremblay, M., Polissar, P., Shuster, D., Lin, D., Colman, A. (2018) Paleocene to Pliocene low-latitude high elevation of southern Tibet: Implications for tectonic models of India-Asia collision, Cenozoic.  GSA Bulletin 130(1-2):307-330. doi: 10.1130/B31723.1.

[JA42]   Bird, B.W., Rudloff, O., Escobar, J., Gilhooly III, W.P., Correa-Metrio, A., Velez., M., Polissar, P.J., (2018) Paleoclimate support for a persistent dry island effect in the Colombian Andes during the middle and late Holocene.  The Holocene, 28(2):217 – 228, doi: 10.1177/0959683617721324.

[JA41]   Goldsmith, Y, Broecker, W.S., Xu, H., Polissar, P.J., deMenocal, P., Porat, N., Lan, J., Cheng, P., Zhou, W., An, Z. (2017) Reply to Liu et al.: East Asian summer monsoon rainfall dominates Lake Dali lake area changes.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.  114(15): E2989-E2990 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1703511114.

[JA40]   Goldsmith, Y, Broecker, W.S., Xu, H., Polissar, P.J., deMenocal, P., Porat, N., Lan, J., Cheng, P., Zhou, W., An, Z. (2017) Northward extent of East Asian monsoon covaries with intensity on orbital and millennial timescales.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.  114(8):1817-1821. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1616708114.

[JA39]   Rabinowitz, H., Polissar, P.J., Savage, H.M. (2017) Reaction kinetics of alkenone and n-alkane thermal alteration at seismic timescales.  Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 18(1):204-219. doi: 10.1002/2016GC006553.

[JA38]   Goldsmith, Y, Polissar, P. J., Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., deMenocal, P. B., and Broecker, W. S (2017) The modern and Last Glacial Maximum hydrological cycles of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant from a water isotope perspective.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 457:302-312, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.10.017.

[JA37]   Bird, B.W., Lei, Y., Perello, M, Polissar, P.J., Yao, T., Finney, B.P., Bain, D., Pomopeani, D., Thompson, L.G. (2016)  Late Holocene Indian summer monsoon variability revealed from a 3,300-year-long lake sediment record from Nir’pa Co, southeastern Tibet.  The Holocene. doi: 10.1177/0959683616670220.

[JA36]   Rose, C., Polissar, P.J., Tierney, J., Filley, T., deMenocal, P.B. (2016) Changes in northeast African hydrology and vegetation associated with Pliocene–Pleistocene sapropel cycles. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 371: 20150243, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0243.

[JA35]   Uno, K.T., Polissar, P.J.Jackson, K., deMenocal, P.B. (2016b) Neogene biomarker Record of Vegetation Change in Eastern Africa.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 113(23):6355-6363, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1521267113.

[JA34]   Uno, K.T., Polissar, P.J.Kahle, E., Feibel, C., Harmand, S., Roche, H., deMenocal, P.B. (2016a)  A Pleistocene palaeovegetation record from plant wax biomarkers from the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, Kenya.  Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 371: 20150235, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0235.

[JA33]   Lyle, M., Pockalny, R., Polissar, P., Lynch-Steiglitz, J., Bova, S., Dunlea, A., Ford, H., Hertzberg, J., Hovan, S., Jacobel, A., Wertman, C.K., Maloney, A., Murray, R., Wilson, J.S., Wejnert, K., Xie, R. (2016) Dynamic carbonate sedimentation on the Northern Line Islands Ridge, Palmyra Basin.  Marine Geology, 379:194-207, doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2016.06.005.

[JA32]   Currie, B.S., Polissar, P.J., Rowley, D.B., Ingalls, M., Li, S., Olack, G., Freeman, K.H. (2016) Multiproxy paleoaltimetry of the Late Oligocene-Pliocene Oiyug Basin, southern Tibet.  The American Journal of Geology, 316(5):401-436, doi: 10.2475/05.2016.01.

[JA31]   Rabinowitz, H., Savage, H.M., Plank, T., Polissar, P.J., Kirkpatrick, J.D., Rowe, C.D. (2015) Multiple major faults at the Japan Trench: Chemostratigraphy of the plate boundary at IODP Exp. 343: JFAST.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 423:57-66, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.04.010. 

[JA30]   Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Polissar, P.J., Jacobel, A.W., Hovan, S.A., Pockalny, R.A., Lyle, M, Murray, R.W., Ravelo, C.A., Bova, S.C., Dunlea, A.G., Ford, H.L., Hertzberg, J.E., Wertman, C.A., Maloney, A.E., Shackford, J.K., Wejnert, K., Xie, R.C. (2015) Glacial-interglacial changes in central tropical Pacific surface seawater property gradients.  Paleoceanography 30:1-16, doi: 10.1002/2014PA002746.

[JA29]   Moore, J.C., Plank, T.A., Chester, F.M., Polissar, P.J., Savage, H.M. (2015) Sediment provenance and the controls on slip propagation: lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoko and other great earthquakes of the subducting NW Pacific plate.  Geosphere, 11(3):1-9, doi: 10.1130/GES01099.1.

[JA28]   Ford, H.L., Ravelo, A.C., Polissar, P.J., (2015) Reduced ENSO during the Last Glacial Maximum.  Science, 347:255-258, doi: 10.1126/science.1258437

[JA27]   Sheppard, R.E., Polissar, P.J., Savage, H.M. (2015) Organic thermal maturity as a proxy for frictional heating: experimental constraints on biomarker kinetics at earthquake timescales.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 151:103-116, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.11.020.

[JA26]   Bird B.W., Polissar, P.J., Lei Y. Thompson L.G. Yao T., Finney B.P., Bain D., Pompeani D., Steinman, B.A. (2014)  Holocene Indian Summer Monsoon Variability Revealed from a Decadally Resolved Multi-Proxy Tibetan Lake Sediment Record.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 399, 92-102, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.017.

[JA25]   Conroy, J.L., Cobb, K. M., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Polissar, P.J. (2014) Constraints on the salinity-oxygen isotope relationship in the central tropical Pacific Ocean.  Marine Chemistry, 161, 26-33, doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2014.02.001.

[JA24]   Stansell, N.D., Polissar, P.J., Abbott, M.B., Bezada, M., Braun, B., Steinman, B.A. (2014) Proglacial lake sediment records reveal Holocene climate changes in the Venezuelan Andes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 89, 44-55, doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.01.021.

[JA23]   Polissar, P.J., D’Andrea, W.J. (2014) Uncertainty in Paleohydrologic Reconstructions from Molecular δD.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 129, 146-156, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2013.12.021.

[JA22]   Savage H. M., Polissar, P.J.Sheppard R.E., Rowe, C.D. Brodsky E.B. (2014).  Organic molecules heat up during earthquakes:  new evidence of seismic slip in the rock record. Geology, 42, 99-102, doi: 10.1130/G34901.1.

[JA21]   Polissar, P.J., Abbott, M.B., Wolfe, A.P., Vuille, M., Bezada, M. (2013). Synchronous interhemispheric Holocene climate trends in the tropical Andes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(36), 14551-14556, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1219681110.

[JA20]   Mueller, K.E., Polissar, P.J., Oleksyn, J., Freeman, K.H. (2012). Differentiating temperate tree species and their organs using lipid biomarkers in leaves, roots and soil. Organic Geochemistry 52, 130-141, doi: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.08.014.

[JA19]   Sachse, D., Billault, I., Bowen, G.J., Chikaraishi, Y., Dawson, T.E., Feakins, S.J., Freeman, K.H., Magill, C.R., McInerney, F.A., van der Meer, M.T.J., Polissar, P., Robins, R.J., Sachs, J.P., Schmidt, H.-L., Sessions, A.L., White, J.W.C., West, J.B., Kahmen, A. (2012). Molecular Paleohydrology: Interpreting the Hydrogen-Isotopic Composition of Lipid Biomarkers from Photosynthesizing Organisms. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 40, 221-249, doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105535.

[JA18]   Polissar, P.J., Savage H. M., Brodsky E. E. (2011) Extractable organic material in fault zones as a tool to investigate frictional stress. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 311(3-4), 439-447, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.09.004.

[JA17]   Nelson, D. N., Abbott, M. B., Steinman, B., Polissar, P.J.,Stansell, N.S., Ortiz, J. S., Rosenmeier, M. F., Finney, B., Riedel, J. (2011) A 6,000-yr Lake Record of Drought from the Pacific Northwest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108(10) 3870-3875, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1009194108.

[JA16]   Polissar, P.J., Freeman, K.H. (2010) Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 5785-5797, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2010.06.018.

[JA15]   Polissar, P.J., Freeman K. H., Rowley D. B., Mcinerney F. A., and Currie B. S. (2009) Paleoaltimetry of the Tibetan Plateau from D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 287, 64-76, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.07.037.

[JA14]   Polissar, P.J., Fulton J. M., Junium C. K., Turich C. C., and Freeman K. H. (2009) Measurement of 13C and 15N Isotopic Composition on Nanomolar Quantities of C and N. Analytical Chemistry 81(2), 755-763 doi: 10.1021/ac801370c.

[JA13]   Stansell N., Polissar, P.J., and Abbott M. B. (2007) Last Glacial Maximum equilibrium-line altitude and paleo-temperature reconstructions for the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuelan Andes. Quaternary Research 67, 115-127, doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2006.07.005.

[JA12]   Stansell N., Abbott M. B., Polissar, P.J., Wolfe A. P., Bezada M., and Rull V. (2007) Reply:  Late Quaternary deglaciation history of the Mérida Andes, Venezuela:  response to comment. Journal of Quaternary Science 22(8), 823-825, doi: 10.1002/jqs.1109.

[JA11]   Polissar, P.J., Abbott M. B., Wolfe A. P., Bezada M., Rull V., and Bradley R. S. (2006) Solar modulation of Little Ice Age climate in the tropical Andes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 103(24), 8937-8942, doi: 10.1073 pnas.0603118103.

[JA10]   Polissar, P.J., Abbott M. B., Shemesh A., Wolfe A. P., and Bradley R. S. (2006) Hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal, Venezuelan Andes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 242, 375-389, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.12.024.

[JA09]   Stansell N. D., Abbott M. B., Polissar, P.J., Wolfe A. P., Bezada M., and Rull V. (2005) Late Quaternary deglacial history of the Mérida Andes, Venezuela. Journal of Quaternary Science 20(7-8), 801-812, doi: 10.1002/jqs.973.

[JA08]   Rull V., Abbott M. B., Polissar, P.J., Wolfe A. P., Bezada M., and Bradley R. S. (2005) 15,000-yr pollen record of vegetation change in the high altitude tropical Andes at Laguna Verde Alta, Venezuela. Quaternary Research 64, 308-317, doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2005.08.014.

[JA07]   Abbott M. B., Wolfe B. B., Wolfe A. P., Seltzer G. O., Aravena R., Mark B. G., Polissar, P.J., Rodbell D. T., Rowe H. D., and Vuille M. (2003) Holocene paleohydrology and glacial history of the central Andes using multiproxy lake sediment studies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194, 123-138 doi: 10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00274-8.

[JA06]   Reid J. B., Jr., Reynolds J. L., Connolly N. T., Getz S. L., Polissar, P.J., Winship L. J., and Hainsworth L. J. (1998) Carbon isotopes in aquatic plants, Long Valley caldera, California as records of past hydrothermal and magmatic activity. Geophysical Research Letters 25(15), 2853-2856, doi: 10.1029/98GL01854.

[JA05]   Steig E. J., Morse D. L., Waddington E. D., and Polissar, P.J. (1998) Using the sunspot cycle to date ice cores. Geophysical Research Letters 25(2), 163-166, doi: 10.1029/97GL03566.

[JA04]   Steig E. J., Polissar, P.J., Stuiver M., Grootes P. M., and Finkel R. C. (1996) Large amplitude solar modulation cycles of 10Be in Antarctica:  implications for atmospheric mixing processes and interpretation of the ice core record. Geophysical Research Letters 23(5), 523-526, doi: 10.1029/96GL00255.

[JA03]   Sharp R. P., Carey D. L., Reid Jr. J. B., Polissar, P.J., and Williams M. L. (1996) Sliding rocks at the Racetrack, Death Valley:  What makes them move? Discussion and Reply.  Geology 24(8), 766-767.

[JA02]   Steig, E.J., Stuiver, M., Polissar, P.J., (1995) Cosmogenic isotope concentrations at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 30, 95-97.

[JA01]   Reid J. B., Jr., Bucklin E. P., Copenagle L., Kidder J., Pack S. M., Polissar, P.J., and Williams M. L. (1995) Sliding rocks at the Racetrack, Death Valley:  What makes them move? Geology 23(9), 819-822, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1995)0232.3.CO;2.


Reports and Other Publications

[OP2]    Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Keigwin, L., and Workshop Participants including Polissar (2015) Science Driven Assessment of Needs for Marine Sediment Coring 2015-2025.  Report of workshop held May 28-29, 2015 at the National Science Foundation.  Available at

[OP1]    Lynch-Stieglitz, J, Polissar, P. and the scientific personnel of cruise MGL12-08 (2012) MGL12-08 Cruise Report. A summary of the objectives, methods, activities and findings from oceanographic research cruise MGL12-08, May 1-26, 2012 aboard the R/V Marcus G. Langseth.  Available at


Data Products

[DP01]  Paleo pCO2 Database (2020).  A database of vetted proxy CO2 estimates covering the Cenozoic (65 Ma to present).  Data available through the NOAA Paleoclimate Data Portal (accessible at with data files directly accessible at  Data, explanations, FAQ, and visualizations available through the project website (